Irma Jacqueline Ozer: A separate peace: The Jewish Debt to African Americans

  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/drupal/civicrm.module on line 619.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 177.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 273.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 416.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/Log.php on line 168.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/Mail.php on line 158.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/DAO.php on line 304.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/DAO.php on line 854.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/DAO.php on line 882.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/I18n.php on line 287.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/PseudoConstant.php on line 789.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/PseudoConstant.php on line 912.
  • strict warning: Declaration of CRM_Core_DAO::factory() should be compatible with DB_DataObject::factory($table = '') in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/DAO.php on line 45.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Utils/System.php on line 653.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Utils/System.php on line 684.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Session.php on line 102.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php on line 85.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php on line 171.
  • strict warning: Non-static method PEAR_ErrorStack::singleton() should not be called statically in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/PEAR/ErrorStack.php on line 983.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Smarty.php on line 121.
  • strict warning: Declaration of CRM_Core_Error::singleton() should be compatible with & PEAR_ErrorStack::singleton($package, $msgCallback = false, $contextCallback = false, $throwPEAR_Error = false, $stackClass = 'PEAR_Error...') in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php on line 45.
  • strict warning: Non-static method PEAR_ErrorStack::singleton() should not be called statically in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php on line 496.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Utils/Cache.php on line 78.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Utils/Cache.php on line 80.
  • : Non-static method CRM_Utils_File::createDir() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 233.
  • : Non-static method CRM_Core_DAO::init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 304.
  • : Non-static method PEAR::getStaticProperty() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/DAO.php on line 96.
  • : Non-static method DB_DataObject::debugLevel() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/DAO.php on line 99.
  • : Non-static method DB_DataObject::_loadConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 4068.
  • : Non-static method PEAR::getStaticProperty() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 4148.
  • : Non-static method CRM_Core_DAO::setFactory() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 308.
  • : Non-static method Log::singleton() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 289.
  • : Non-static method Log::factory() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/Log.php on line 220.
  • : Non-static method Log::_classExists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/Log.php on line 162.
  • : Non-static method Log::_classExists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/Log.php on line 167.
  • strict warning: Non-static method PEAR::setErrorHandling() should not be called statically in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php on line 475.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Component.php on line 95.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/BAO/Setting.php on line 56.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/BAO/Setting.php on line 144.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/BAO/Setting.php on line 215.
  • : Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/BAO/Setting.php on line 226.
  • : Non-static method PEAR::getStaticProperty() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 2256.
  • : Non-static method DB::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 2261.
  • : Non-static method DB::parseDSN() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB.php on line 520.
  • : Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB.php on line 557.
  • : Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 2152.
  • : Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/common.php on line 2195.
  • : Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 2283.
  • : Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 2152.
  • : Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/DataObject.php on line 2152.
  • : Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/common.php on line 2195.
  • : Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/packages/DB/common.php on line 1217.
  • : Non-static method CRM_Utils_File::createDir() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 372.
  • : Non-static method CRM_Utils_File::createDir() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 372.
  • : Non-static method CRM_Utils_File::createDir() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hesco/apps/CampaignHostingPlusMultiLingual/sites/all/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php on line 376.
Tagged:  

I believe that Jews, as well as non-Jewish whites, have wronged African Americans. However, the wrongs are different in nature. The peace to come about between African Americans and Jews would, therefore, have to be a separate peace. When I suggest to some of my fellow Jews that we, as well as other Americans, bear guilt toward African Americans, they usually respond as follows: "But we never lynched the Blacks. We weren't responsible for slavery. In fact, Jews fought for civil rights for the Blacks in the 60s. Jews contributed millions to the NAACP. We have also suffered persecution, all over the world!" All true, but there are other truths as well.

First of all, we Jews have not suffered the same type of persecution and discrimination that African American have. Anti-Semitism is largely based upon envy. "The Jews are on the top everywhere you look!" said the Germans during Hitler's time. "They run this country, the lousy kikes!" say right-wing Americans now. The persecution and discrimination suffered by African Americans, on the other hand, have been based upon contempt and physical fear. People with conditions such as schizophrenia or epilepsy can understand better than we Jews the humiliation African Americans have endured. An African American lawyer told me that when I gave a workshop on portrayals of the disabled in literature and film.

Secondly, a significant number of Jews are guilty of racism. Not lynching, not burning crosses, but the racism manifested in insensitivity to the rage and hurt of African Americans who suddenly were "equal" under the 1964 Civil Rights Act, but not in the heart and mind of America. In 1973, 1 returned from a seven-year sojourn in Germany and Israel to hear Jews complain about "Blacks" being hostile and full of rage. Moreover, some Jewish academicians have written articles and books that demean African Americans. These professionals often assert that the Black race is congenitally of inferior intelligence, or that a white storeowner has the right not to let a Black male in. That is also racism. It is even more insidious than the screams of the skinheads -- precisely because these "intellectuals" sound so "knowledgeable" and ... well... "reasonable."

Finally, most Jews have turned a deaf ear to Black cries for reparations. Before I left the United States to be a singer in Munich, I treasured the friendship of two African Americans who taught me to sing spirituals. I could not fathom how anybody could hate "Negroes." In Germany and in Israel, I was involved in reconciliation efforts between Germans and Jews. Yet I never realized at that time that if Jews deserved reparations from Germany, so did Blacks from White America. Most Jews do not draw that parallel, because six million Blacks were not, within twelve years, gassed and turned into soap and gloves. No, but in three hundred years, millions of African Americans perished during the slave trade and later during Jim Crow. America's Holocaust was in slow motion. From 1973 until 1991, when my conscience towards African Americans was awakened by reading the case Brown vs. Board of Education, I was insensitive to the reasons for Black Rage. In fact, until 1995, 1 did not even know that African Americans had sought reparations for half a century or more. "Was blind, but now I see."